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Keynote Lecturers

  • Aibing, Hao

    Aibing, Hao

    Department of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology, China Geological Survey(CGS)

    Remarkable achievements of hydrogeological survey in China for recent years

    Biography

    Abstract

  • Andersen, Martin

    Andersen, Martin

    University of New South Wales (UNSW Sydney)

    Groundwater management Downunder – lessons learnt from the Australian experience

    Biography

    Abstract

  • David F. Boutt

    Boutt, David

    University of Massachusetts Amherst (UMASS-Amherst)

    Do you know where your catchment ends? The role of inter-basin groundwater flow and hydrogeologic transience in hydrologic processes

    Biography

    Abstract

  • Ge, Shemin

    University of Colorado

    Fluid injection induced seismicity: A hydrogeology perspective

    Biography

    Abstract

  • Goldscheider, Nico

    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)

    Global challenges and local solutions in karst hydrogeology

    Biography

    Abstract

  • Todd Halihan

    Halihan, Todd

    Oklahoma State University

    Electrical hydrogeology: A picture is worth 1000 wells

    Biography

    Abstract

  • Bjørn Kløve

    Kløve, Bjørn

    University of Oulu

    Groundwater dependent ecosystems of the boreal landscape

    Biography

    Abstract

  • Kang-Kun LEE

    Lee, Kang-Kun

    Seoul National University

    Exploring better and new utilizations of groundwater in Korea

    Biography

    Abstract

  • Oh, Kyongsoo

    Jeju Province Development Corporation (JPDC)

    Creation of economic value and social contribution using groundwater resources

    Biography

    Abstract

  • Schwartz, Frank W.

    Schwartz, Frank W.

    The Ohio State University

    How Urbanization, Poverty, and Populations are Shaping Asia’s Groundwater Future

    Biography

    Abstract

     
  • Makoto Taniguchi

    Taniguchi, Makoto

    Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN)

    Global sustainability with groundwater in Asia 

    Biography

    Abstract

Biography:

Prof. Dr. Makoto Taniguchi is a hydrogeologist and a deputy director-general at the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN), Japan. He received PhD in the field of groundwater hydrology from The Tsukuba University, Japan in 1987. He is currently the Vice President of International Association of Hydrogeologists, the president of the Japanese Association of Groundwater Hydrology. He served a coordinator of UNESCO GRAPHIC Project, the Associate Editors of Ground Water and Hydrological Processes, a Vice President of the International Committee of Groundwater of IAHS under IUGG. He has worked on groundwater projects around world in particular Asia, authoring or co-authoring over 120 articles and 8 books including "Groundwater and Subsurface Environment in Asia (Springer)"

 

Biography:

Dr. Kang-Kun Lee is a full professor of Hydrogeology at Seoul National University, Korea. He received his Ph.D. from Purdue University, West Lafayette, USA. He has been studying groundwater in Korea since he joined Seoul National University in 1993. He was the president of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment during 2011-2012 and is the 39th president of the Geological Society of Korea. He is the editor-in-chief of Geosciences Journal and served as associate editors for Journal of Hydrology and Hydrogeology Journal, and national representative of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences.

 

Biography:

David Boutt is an Associate Professor in the Department of Geosciences at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst. He received B.S. and M.S. degrees from the Department of Geological Sciences at Michigan State University in 1997 and 1999. His MS work focused on understanding the impacts of land-use change on groundwater quantity and quality at the watershed-scale. He earned his Ph.D. from the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (Socorro, New Mexico, USA) in 2004 and held a postdoctoral position at Sandia National Laboratories before joining the faculty at UMass-Amherst in 2005. During his Ph.D. research he was awarded an AGU Horton Research Grant. Dr. Boutt's dissertation work focused on the coupling of fluid flow and deformation in fractured and faulted media through the development of discretely-coupled fluid-solid models. His current research program focuses on understanding the role of groundwater in catchment-scale hydrologic processes. This involves delineating the contribution of groundwater storage to stream flow generation, spring discharge, and hydrologic budgets. He maintains an active and dynamic research laboratory with dedicated students ranging from undergraduates to PhD students. His research interests have taken him on board the Japanese Drilling Vessel Chikyu during IODP Expedition 319 - the first riser drilling operation in IODP history - to wild of the Atacama desert in Chile. Some of his current work is focused on understanding the origin of lithium-rich continental brines in northern Chile and in the Great Basin of the western United States. Dr. Boutt has also contributed extensively to understanding the hydrogeology of a former cranberry bog that is part of the largest freshwater restoration project in New England (http://www.livingobservatory.org). A list of his publications can be found at https://blogs.umass.edu/dboutt. Boutt has served the hydrogeologic and broader geoscience communities by serving on proposal review panels and volunteer boards. Boutt has been a member of GSA since 1997 and has convened many topical sessions at GSA national meetings. He is currently an editor for the journal Hydrological Processes, and he was previously an associate editor for Hydrogeology journal.

 

Biography:

Todd Halihan, Ph.D., P.Gp.Dr. Halihan is a Professor of Geology at Oklahoma State University and Chief Technical Officer for Aestus, LLC. Dr. Halihan’s professional interests center in subsurface characterization and sustainable water supply. He has been an associate editor for Ground Water and has served as the Secretary-Treasurer of the U.S. Chapter of the International Association of Hydrogeologists. He served as the Chair of the Hydrogeology Division and the South-Central Section of the Geological Society of America. He currently serves on the Oklahoma governor’s Coordinating Council on Seismic Activity. Dr. Halihan’s has worked on over 200 different research and commercial sites in over 30 U.S. states and overseas. His international research work has occurred in Australia, Bahamas, Brazil, South Africa and Mexico along with a number of other countries on a commercial basis. He has also spent a significant amount of time in his home state of Oklahoma evaluating the Arbuckle Group of carbonates and associated springs. Dr. Halihan is the recipient of the Karin and Robert J. Sternberg Award for Excellence, the Partners in Conservation Award from the U.S. Department of Interior, and the Sterling L. Burks Award for environmental research. He is also a professional driller in the state of Oklahoma and a PADI divemaster. He has provided input to stories on CBS, Fox News, NPR, CNBC, Popular Science, the New Yorker and the New York Times.

 

Biography:

Bjørn Kløve is a professor in water resources engineering at University of Oulu, Finland. He obtained his PhD in 1997 from Lund University, Sweden. Thereafter, he worked at Norwegian Centre for Soil and Environmental research (later Bioforsk and NIBIO). His research focus on hydrological processes studies using hydrologic and isotopic measurements, remote sensing and numerical modelling to understand complex ecosystems and to explore and mitigate impacts of land use and climate change. Much of the research relate to understanding wetlands and peatlands under environmental change.

 

Biography:

Dr. Clifford I. Voss is a senior scientist with U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). He is an internationally recognized expert in: groundwater modeling; development, management and protection of groundwater; coastal groundwater and seawater intrusion; subsurface toxic waste isolation, energy production and storage; evaluation of climate-evolution impacts on hydrology of regions with ground ice and permafrost. Cliff lectures worldwide on these and related subjects and was selected as the 2015 Birdsall-Dreiss Distinguished Lecturer by the Geological Society of America. His scientific interests include: addressing hydrogeologic heterogeneity; flow, solute and energy transport physics; behavior of fluids with varying density; phase change in geothermal and frozen systems; inverse modeling and network design; evaluating large aquifer systems with only sparse data. The SUTRA computer code, developed and maintained by Cliff and USGS colleagues, has become a standard tool for groundwater assessment, making possible hundreds of practical and research investigations worldwide since its release. Examples of Cliff’s work include: nuclear waste repository safety (Germany, Japan, Sweden), transboundary water resource management (Nubian Aquifer of Egypt, Libya, Sudan, and Chad), sustainability of water supply (arsenic-free groundwater supply from Bengal Aquifer of India and Bangladesh), seawater intrusion and coastal groundwater management (USA), evaluation of water resources emergency (2004 tsunami in Thailand), and assessment of climate-evolution impacts on permafrost-mediated hydrology (Alaska, USA), in part using simulation methodology for groundwater flow with freeze/thaw recently developed by Cliff and colleagues. Cliff is Executive Editor of the official IAH journal, Hydrogeology Journal, which has become a premier venue for worldwide progress in theoretical and practical hydrogeology and groundwater-resource management during his leadership.

 

Biography:

Nico Goldscheider is professor for hydrogeology and director of the Institute of Applied Geosciences at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), one of the largest research and education institutions in Germany, created in 2009 by the merger of the traditional University of Karlsruhe and a national research center. He studied geology and geoecology at the University of Karlsruhe, where he also completed his PhD thesis in 2002, in the field of karst hydrogeology. From 2002 to 2010, he worked as senior lecturer and researcher at the Centre of Hydrogeology at the University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland. From 2010 to 2011, he was professor for hydrogeology and geothermics at the Technical University of Munich, Germany, until he was appointed at KIT in 2011. His research includes karst and alpine hydrogeology, tracing techniques, groundwater quality and contamination, protection and management of groundwater resources, and aspects of microbiological and ecological groundwater research. From 2009 to 2017, he served as chairman of the IAH Karst Commission. In this role, he has established the “Young Karst Researcher Prize”, and he has initiated and led the World Karst Aquifer Mapping (WOKAM) project, which was accomplished in 2017. He served as Associate Editor of Hydrogeology Journal and Journal of Hydrology, and has now been appointed Editor-in-Chief of the German journal “Grundwasser” (groundwater). He has published an international textbook (Methods in Karst Hydrogeology, with D. Drew) and more than 80 journal papers.

 

Biography:

Kyong-soo OH is the President of Jeju Special Self-Governing Province Development Corporation. He graduated from Korea University in 1982 and completed PhD course in Korea University Graduate School of Information Security in 2014. He has served as a representative of Lotte Data Communication and Hyundai Information Technology for 14 years. He also served as president of Korea Information Security Industry Association, Korea Software Industry Association, and Korea Information Processing Society. In 2010, he was awarded the Korea Tilt Tower Industry Medal from Republic of Korea. He published a book, 'Manage myself through Memo'.

 

Biography:

Shemin Ge is a Professor and current Chair of the Department of Geological Sciences at the University of Colorado, USA. She received her Ph.D. from The Johns Hopkins University in 1990, subsequently worked at S.S. Papadopulos and Associates, and joined the University of Colorado in 1993. At the confluence of subsurface fluid flow physics and rock mechanics, Dr. Ge’s early research examined the effects of tectonic deformation on paleo-fluid flow systems in sedimentary basins. She moved on to explore earthquake-induced groundwater flow as natural experiments to reveal hydrologic properties of aquifers and explore the mechanisms of seismicity induced by reservoir operation and wastewater injection. Another thread of her research relates to groundwater resources and surface-groundwater interactions under a changing climate with a focus on headwater regions. She also ventured into fracture flow and fault zone hydrology, as well as subsurface thermal energy transport and storage. Dr. Ge served the hydrogeologic and broader geoscience communities in various capacities. She chaired the Hydrogeology Program Planning Group for the Ocean Drilling Program from 1999 to 2002. She was Editor for Hydrogeology Journal and Associate Editor for Geofluids and Journal of Ground Water. In 2012-2014, she served as Program Director for the Hydrologic Sciences Program at the US National Science Foundation. She was the 2016 distinguished Birdsall-Dreiss lecturer of the Geological Society of America Hydrogeology Division..

 

Biography:

Dr Martin S Andersen is a groundwater researcher with over 65 journal publications in a diverse range of topics including physical, geochemical and ecological processes in aquifers and their interactions with surface waters. Martin is an Associate Professor at UNSW, Sydney and the Director of the Connected Waters Initiative Research Centre (CWI: http://www.connectedwaters.unsw.edu.au/) and the Program Director of the NCRIS Groundwater Infrastructure Program (http://www.connectedwaters.unsw.edu.au/ncris).

 

Biography:

Hao Aibing, Ph.D.,a hydrogeologist, is Director General of Department of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology, China Geological Survey (CGS). He is also the chief managers of “Program of Comprehensive Geological Survey of Important Economic Zones and Urban Clusters” and “Project of National Groundwater Monitoring Network Construction” carrying out by CGS. He worked at China Institute of Geo-Environmental Monitoring during 1990-2008, and received his Ph.D. from China University of Geosciences in 1997. During this period he has mainly focused on groundwater study in China’s northwest arid regions, and accomplished over 20 projects mainly focus on regional hydrogeologic investigation, groundwater modeling, geochemical evolution of groundwater, etc. He moved to CGS in 2009 and became to be a planner and organizer of the hydrogeology and environmental geology programs financed by central government. He has published (most in Chinese) more than 60 journal papers.

 

Biography:

Frank W. Schwartzis Ohio Eminent Scholar in the School of Earth Sciences at The Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio, USA. Professor Schwartz is the author of more than 190 publications and is known internationally for his work on field and theoretical aspects of contaminant hydrogeology and remediation, mass transport, ground-water geochemistry, and watershed hydrology. He has co-authored two textbooks, Physical and Chemical Hydrogeology (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, Domenico, P.A. and F.W. Schwartz, 1998), and Fundamentals of Ground Water (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, F.W. Schwartz, and H. Zhang, 2003), which are widely used for teaching hydrogeology around the world. Professor Schwartz has received major awards and recognitions for research, which include the O.E. Meinzer Award, the Excellence in Science and Engineering Award, the King Hubbert Science Award, and election as a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union and the Geological Society of America. In addition to teaching and research, he acts as a consultant to government and industry, and in various advisory capacities. He served as an Editor-in-Chief for the Journal of Contaminant Hydrology (1991-2003), and the Editor-in-Chief for the Groundwater (2009-2013).

 

Remarkable achievements of hydrogeological survey in China for recent years

HAO Aibing1, ZHANG Eryong1, WANG Huang1
1China Geological Survey, Beijing, China

A series of remarkable hydrogeological achievements has been carried out by China Geological Survey(CGS)in recent 20 years. A national groundwater resource and related environment investigation project was implemented in plains, basins and the key economic areas from 2000 to 2005. To meet the needs of groundwater supply and ecological protection, the 1:50,000 hydrogeological survey, following standard sheet format, has been launched since 2003. Up to now, a standard combined of field investigation, mapping & database management has been set up, and 600,000 square kilometers has been finished. A new version of 1:50,000 hydrogeological maps have been produced . From 2005 to 2015, National Groundwater Quality and Pollution Investigation, which was implemented by CGS for the first time,covered an area of 4.4 million square kilometers,completed 36000 sets of groundwater samples with 72 testing indicators,and ascertained the current status of baseline groundwater quality involving the inorganic and organic contaminants. From 2015 to 2017, National Groundwater Monitoring Project has been established progressively. The range of this project contains large-scale plains, basins and contiguous karst areas with controlling areas of 3.5 million square kilometers, and the general objective for this project is to construct a comprehensive national groundwater monitoring system, integrated with information collecting, transporting, processing, analyzing and customized servicing. With the aims of summarizing investigation and research results, promoting the theoretical innovation of hydrogeology, engineering geology and environmental geology, CGS is responsible for Atlas of Geological Environment of China,including 8 groundwater maps, such as Map of Groundwater Resources in China(1:5,000,000), Map of Groundwater Environment in China(1:5,000,000), Hydrogeological Map of Chinaetc.

Keywords: hydrogeological mapping, groundwater quality, groundwater monitoring

 

Groundwater Management Downunder – Lessons Learned From the Australian Experience

Martin Søgaard Andersen1,2
1Connected Waters Initiative Research Centre, UNSW, Sydney, Australia
2School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW, Sydney, Australia

The Murray-Darling river basin is Australia’s largest and economically most important river basin. Much of the basin is located in the arid and semi-arid climatic region of Australia with low and unreliable rainfall. Groundwater therefore plays an important role in securing domestic and agricultural water supplies in parts of the basin and in times of low surface water flows. Due to a combination of droughts and water-overuse the basin has been the cause of much political tension and conflict between various users and interest groups for over almost a century. As a consequence different management and water allocation strategies have been implemented, such as the recent Murray-Darling Basin Plan agreed in 2012. Underlying these strategies has been a desire to base the water management of the basin on a better scientific understanding and quantification of flows and processes, which has spurred much scientific research. This talk will focus on the role of groundwater in the Murray Darling Basin, and in particular the scientific advances in the understanding of groundwater processes in the Basin. The talk will also highlight some of the challenges and research questions still remaining.

Keywords: Groundwater, Murray-Darling Basin, Surface water groundwater interaction, Water quality, Ecology

 

Do you know where your catchment ends? The role of inter-basin groundwater flow and hydrogeologic transience in hydrologic processes

David F. Boutt1
1Department of Geosciences,
University of Massachusetts-Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA, 01003

A fundamental concept in the hydrologic analysis of watersheds is that the water draining to the outlet of the basin originates within the basin itself. Groundwater hydrologists have long understood the role and impact of inter-basin groundwater flow, defined here as the subsurface transfer of water across topographic boundaries. This inter-basin transfer of water leaves a distinct impact on the hydrologic and solute budgets of the catchments. This talk addresses when and where topographic catchment divides correspond to groundwater divides and how this is affected by climatic variability and geologic heterogeneity. Examples from a range of climates and geologic environments (northern Chile, Great Basin of the United States, Trinidad and Tobago, and coastal Massachusetts) will highlight the relevance of inter-basin flow on hydrologic and geologic processes. Additionally, the coupling of hydrologic transience and changes in groundwater storage is also discussed, since these two processes are often difficult to separate in practice. Finally, I present recommendations and suggestions for new approaches to conceptualization of hydrogeologic watershed boundaries that take into consideration both geologic uncertainty and climate variability.

 

Fluid injection induced seismicity: a hydrogeologic perspective

Shemin Ge1
1Department of Geological Sciences,
University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, USA

Frequent seismicity has been occurring in the past decade in tectonically quiescent regions such as the central eastern USA. Studies have identified spatiotemporal associations between the seismicity and deep wastewater injection related to oil and gas production, but many injection sites experienced no seismicity. Although pore pressure change from deep-well injection has been known to be the primary culprit for inducing earthquakes since the 60s, questions remain with regard to hydrogeological and poro-mechanical processes in causing seismicity, as well as what injection operational parameters make some sites more prone than others to induced seismicity. This presentation offers an overview and insights gained from studying fluid injection induced seismicity in recent years from hydrogeological and poro-mechanics perspectives. Case studies are presented to illustrate how pore pressures play a role in inducing observed seismicity. Modeling of pore pressure diffusion suggests that high-rate injections create an intense hydrogeological perturbation to the subsurface system, which emerges as an important factor in contributing to induced seismicity. As pore pressure front propagates from the injection site, it could trigger seismicity as it encounters rock weaknesses such as fractures or faults. Assuming the Earth’s crust is critically stressed, relatively small pore pressure perturbation could trigger seismicity. The spatial extent of pore pressure influence could reach tens of kilometers from high-rate injection wells in a few years. Continuing research to probe interactions among pore pressure propagation, ambient background stress, and spatial distribution of fractures and faults in heterogeneous geologic formations will further advance our understanding on hydrogeological, mechanical, and seismologic processes. Ultimately, these efforts can help provide much needed guidance for best practices and mitigate induced seismic hazard in the quest for energy resources.

Keywords: induced seismicity, fluid injection, pore pressure modeling, poro-mechanics

 

Global challenges and local solutions in karst hydrogeology

Nico Goldscheider1
1Institute of Applied Geosciences,
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany

According to the recently accomplished World Karst Aquifer Map, about 14.7 % of the Earth’s ice-free land surface is characterized by the presence of carbonate rocks, many of which form aquifers containing groundwater resources that are used for the freshwater supply of hundreds of millions of people, and for irrigation. At the same time, karst systems host a great variety of ecosystems at the land surface and in the underground, thus calling for a balanced management of groundwater exploitation for human use and ecosystem preservation. However, karst water resources are under increasing pressure resulting from population growth and the associated urbanization and intensified agricultural land use, often additionally aggravated by climate change. These global challenges call for solutions across all scales; hydrogeologists can contribute by providing better methods and tools for the sustainable management of karst aquifers, which often takes place at local to regional scales. This approach is illustrated by means of three examples, representing important global challenges and local solutions. Many high-mountain regions are impacted by climate change that manifests itself by retreating glaciers and changes in the spatiotemporal patterns of snow cover and snow melt, which also lead to changes in the availability of associated water resources. A study in a glaciated karst system in the Alps has demonstrated that the predicted disappearance of the glacier overlying the karst aquifer will alter the discharge regime of a connected karst spring used for water supply. An annual discharge loss of about 35% is expected to occur, leading to substantial water shortages in the summer period. Therefore, additional water sources need to be identified and the agricultural irrigation practices need to be adapted. Many regions in Africa and the Middle East are experiencing rapid population growth and urbanization. A study in Jordan has demonstrated the urban impacts on the karst aquifer underneath the city. Weekly variations of karst spring discharge and water quality can be attributed to leakages in the water supply and sewage network, in combination with intermittent water supply. Based on detailed hydrological, hydrochemical and microbiological monitoring, it was possible to quantify and identify the major water losses and to implement an early-warning system for microbial contamination. The last example is related to the implementation of a water supply system in a mountainous UNESCO Geopark in Vietnam, where increasing tourism leads to rising water demand. Water supply in this region, just as in many other highland karst areas, is challenging in terms of water accessibility and rural contamination. Comprehensive hydrogeological investigations made it possible to identify suitable water sources, to evaluate the highly variable water quality during dry and wet seasons, to identify relevant contamination sources, and to provide tools for the sustainable management of the karst water resources. Similar challenges occur in many regions of the world, but every karst system has its individual characteristics. Therefore, hydrogeologists can contribute to solving global problems by developing transferable but locally adapted solutions.

Keywords: Karst aquifer, alpine hydrogeology, urbanization, water quality, freshwater supply

 

Electrical Hydrogeology: A Picture is Worth 1000 Wells

Todd HALIHAN1
1School of Geology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA

The science of hydrogeology was developed by creating conceptual models of the subsurface based on chemical or physical hydrogeology principles. Numerical and analytical modeling added significantly to the science to understand how to best sample and test these subsurface ideas. The ability to collect high density electrical data on an academic and commercial basis has allowed us to make several new advancements in the science. This talk will look at how electrical data can allow us to determine the location of flow paths, find meter-scale structures that change our conceptual models, and monitor life in the subsurface as it grows. Examples will include water supply in porous media and karst domains as wells as contaminated sites affected by microbial activity.

 

TBD

 

Exploring better and new utilizations of groundwater in Korea

Kang-Kun Lee1
1School of Earth and Environmental Sciences,
Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea

Groundwater in some countries has been used as a precious water resource by providing major drinking waters to residents. In some other countries, however, groundwater is being recognized as auxiliary water reserved for severe drought or unexpected and urgent water crisis caused by accidental contamination of the main water reservoirs such as lake or river. Not being utilized as a precious water supply renders groundwater as a poorly managed resource because not much investment is allowed under the economic point of view based on the benefit/cost ratio frame. This in return causes groundwater usage more shifted to be trivial. In order to reverse this negative feedback to positive feedback, finding methods of high-value groundwater utilization are necessary. Here I want to describe several efforts to find ways for good and distinct utilization of groundwater: 1) premium drinkable water through big data analyses, 2) wellbore energy storage and groundwater heat pump, 3) cold water for thermoelectric generator, 4) dual resources of energy and water normally energy source switchable to water supply in case of drought. Groundwater quality data, well hydrogeological data, and time-series observation data in several regions of Korea were analyzed to obtain data structure mapping relevant to the groundwater with premium qualities for specific purposes. Monitoring and analysis data of groundwater heat pump installation and operation are provided with the efficiency of electricity saving. The analysis and discussion about the groundwater heat pump is extended to wellbore energy storage. Thermoelectric generator application by using groundwater is also presented. Possibility of groundwater utilization as renewable energy source in normal time and make it switchable to water supply to cope with drought or water emergency case is discussed.

Keywords: Groundwater utilization, Groundwater heat pump, Renewable water energy, Dual resources

 

Creation of Economic Value and Social Contribution Using Groundwater Resources

Kyong-Soo OH1
1CEO of Jeju Province Development Corporation, Jeju, Korea

Jeju’s groundwater is not only a precious natural resource, but also an asset jointly owned by the Jeju residents. That is why strict regulation of bottled water business is imperative in Jeju. Jeju Province Development Corporation (JPDC) established as the sole entity permitted to produce bottled water in Jeju, it operates Jeju Samdasoo with the intent of preventing indiscriminate groundwater development while expanding public finance. As a local public enterprise, its sales proceeds are reverted to the local government to invest into projects for the Jeju residents. Jeju Island is the biggest volcanic island in Korea, and was formed by prolonged volcanic activity. Jeju Island acts like a huge natural water purifier. Since Jeju Samdasoo contains the proper amount of dissolved mineral contents, the water’s taste is fresh and smooth. JPDC has continued to grow rapidly since its creation in 1995. Compared to the performance in 1995, jobs increased by 41 times; sales grew by 761 times; and net earnings rose by 1,057 times in 2017. Moreover, about 50% of the accumulated net profit is returned to communities for the sake of a welfare programs for Jeju residents. JPDC is developing various social contribution projects for Jeju residents such as Job creation, purchasing groundwater recharge areas for its preservation, scholarship assistance and public rental housing support project etc. From Jeju Samdasoo’s sales proceeds, Jeju Special Self-Governing Province has reinvesting to support the local waterworks projects to provide clean water for the Jeju residents. JPDC has carrying out R&D for protecting water resources such as Managing the Water Resources of Jeju Island in Response to Climate Change, Hydrogeological investigation of the Pyoseon Watershed and so on. With the sustained growth of Jeju Samdasoo, JPDC is becoming a worthy precedent of sharing its growth with residents, which is rarely found.

Keywords: Public resources, Groundwater, Jeju Samdasoo, Create value, Contribution, Job Creation

 

How Urbanization, Poverty, and Populations are Shaping Asia’s Groundwater Future

Franklin W. SCHWARTZ1
1School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

Increasingly, groundwater management in Asia can be increasingly characterized as a race to the bottom with more and more pumping for irrigation, chasing less and less groundwater, for example, in Northern China and Western India. Not surprisingly, associated problems of diminished food security, land subsidence and saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers are also widespread. If there was ever to be progress towards groundwater sustainability in Asia, it should have already started. After all, the theory and tools necessary to manage groundwater sustainably have existed for many years, supported by a variety of successful experiences. For example in Orange County, California, there is aggressive recharge of excess surface water and recycled waste water, and hydraulic barriers working to block saltwater intrusion. In Central Valley, groundwater sources depleted from agricultural irrigation were replaced by imported surface water. For many Asian nations, there are both financial and technical impediments to sustainability. The upfront costs for getting into the sustainability game for groundwater are large. There are informational and infrastructure needs to be met before even starting, e.g., detailed characterization of aquifer systems, and comprehensive monitoring systems. Augmentation of groundwater sources with imported, recycled, or artificially-recharged water is challenged by cost, technical complexity and the inability to capture water from relatively short-lived monsoonal deluges. Locally, water problems of cities, especially megacities, are an emerging concern. A case in point is Jakarta, Indonesia, which exemplifies difficulties rapidly-growing cities are experiencing in managing groundwater sustainably. With a population growth rate of ~4% per year, expected to reach 25 million by 2025, groundwater resources are at substantial risk of depletion and contamination. Elsewhere, large existing populations e.g., China, India and Pakistan reduce the resiliency for coping with stresses to the water resources. If, for example, groundwater scarcities develop, it may be simply infeasible to replace a large existing demand for groundwater. The reality for many nations is that water shortages are not their most serious problems. Crises, stemming from insurgencies and natural disasters, like flooding, earthquakes, and from the need to keep economies growing often demand immediate attention, as compared to the more slowly developing environmental and health problems. Yet, heading off future water supply problems demands immediate concerted action.

Keywords: Sustainability, Groundwater, Over-pumping Irrigation, Megacities

 

Global sustainability with groundwater in Asia

Makoto Taniguchi1
1Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto, Japan

Global sustainability depends on groundwater governance in Asia, not only because of large water footprints through global trade of agricultural/industrial materials, but also due to carbon emissions through human activities using groundwater in Asia. On the other hand, sustainable groundwater governance has cultural dependency because of differences in hydroclimate, hydrogeology, water management, and water culture in each area. Historical literacies on hydrogeology show that cultural dependency and strong interactions between humanity and nature can be found in many areas in Asia. They can also tell us how much humanity and nature are closely related to each other in Asia. This interaction is important for finding solutions towards sustainability for the current complicated and wicked global environmental problems. In this keynote speech, global sustainability with groundwater in Asia is overviewed in terms of interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary studies. These studies on hydrogeology are categorized into two types of studies; a) integrated discipline-oriented studies of groundwater as a part of seamless water movement on the earth, such as land-ocean interactions including saltwater intrusion and submarine groundwater discharge, and b) integrated holistic understandings of groundwater with different disciplines and stakeholders. Challenges for the future of hydrogeology towards global sustainability are discussed from the viewpoints of system knowledge, target knowledge, and transformation knowledge. Regarding system knowledge, interactions beyond the nexus including groundwater, and groundwater footprints with sustainability indices are essential as the center of information among nature, society and humanity. Back cast scenarios and future designs are important for target knowledge. Transformation knowledges are related to human behavioral changes and technological innovations. Natural and social tipping points, regime shifts, and resilience are keys for the future of hydrogeology and a sustainable society.

Keywords: Global sustainability, Asia, groundwater, water footprint, Nexus